President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe is said to have risen to power via electoral deception and fearmongering. There was even one election where he did not receive any votes in a certain province so he orchestrated the killing of over 20,000 civilians by fabricating stories of rebellion and treason. During his time in office over 3.1 million Zimbabweans lost their homes, jobs, and livelihood due to his “land reform program” aka bulldozing any village that voices dissent.
Although Vlad III has been deeply associated with stories about vampires and Dracula, Vlad is more famous for being one of the most tyrannical leaders in history not only because so many people were killed during his reign but also because of his delight in violence and the cruel treatment of prisoners and rebels. He enjoyed impaling his victims and supposedly even bathed in their blood.
Recently deceased, Kim Jong-Il had nearly a quarter million people arrested during his rule and is directly responsible for the starvation and deaths of million of North Koreans.
Idi Amin Dada
Even though Idi Amin Dada ruled Uganda for only eight years from 1971 to 1979, he took full advantage of his time in command to put his wrath on display. Roughly half a million people lost their lives due to extrajudicial killings and genocide during this time.
Probably no one in history has received more assassination attempts than Vladimir Lenin. Of course, given the fact that he instituted the “Red Terror” or the systematic elimination of millions of people, including members of his own political party, this should come as no surprise.
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Emperor Hirohito reigned in Japan during World War II and although the accusations made against his leadership are not as significant as some others on this list, the debate still rages as to whether or not he was responsible for the war crimes committed by his military and how much control he really had.
Like Emperor Hirohit, Koki’s ability and power to affect the atrocities committed by the military was questionable. Unlike Hirota, however, he was executed for war crimes that included being privy to information that could have prevented numerous atrocities.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev
Being a communist leader for the Soviet Union, it should come as no surprise that Leonid Brezhnev fit right into the senselessly violent shoes of his predecessors, Stalin and Lenin. His leadership was marred with the blood of genocide against the Moldovans, Volga Germans, Cossacks, Poles, and even Armenians.
As the successor of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek of China was a very formidable leader whose ideals, goals, and dreams were for the sake of giving China a whole new government, away from the common ground of Communism which had lasted for so many years. He was known as the “White Terror”, purging the opposition for better leadership and country stability. All in all roughly 1 million died as a result of his initiatives.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser Wilhelm II was the last emperor of Germany up until 1918. Know for his inability to control the military and inept command, he probably wasn’t nearly as deadly as he was incapable. Nevertheless, his time as emperor caused the deaths of millions.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh became president of North Vietnam by means of violence and fear. Another dictator who seemed to be trigger happy with his land reforms, over 100,000 people were executed as a result. Others who experienced famine and seclusion in war camps numbered to over 1 million.
Yakubu Gowon was the leader of Nigeria at the time when oil was found in the Niger delta, which was also pursued by Ojukwu of eastern Nigeria. Although both sides signed the “Aburi Accord”, it didn’t really do much in the way of creating peace. Gowon ‘s ruthless military tactics in the ensuing war led to the deaths of over 1 million civilians.
Mengistu Haile Mariam
Mengistu Haile Mariam of Ethiopia had no qualms about eliminating anyone he considered to be opposition. When he gave his introductory speech, he announced death to the revolution and to the EPRP (Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Party). He showed his conviction to his the message by throwing three bottles filled with blood from his pedestal. He also initiated the movement to kill thousands of “Kebeles” on the streets, garroting the resistance to death, and even taxing families when requesting for the return of the dead bodies of their loved ones. Overall, he left about 1.5 million deaths in his wake.
Kim Il Sung
Sick and delusional as he could be, Kim Il Sung of North Korea led a nation using force, aggression, and deception. He lossed so much respect from his people that he ended up blaming the US for the nation’s suffering, spreading the news that the biggest superpower has spread an epidemic throughout the countryside. To make it more convincing, he killed 1.6 million of his own people.
Saddam Hussein was a well-known leader that instigated numerous conflicts in his lifetime. He instituted mass genocide against the Kurds, Shabaks, Assyrians, Mandeans and other ethnic groups who rebelled against his leadership and fought several wars against Iran and Kuwait, with the death toll climbing to about 2 million in total.
Ismail Enver Pasha
Of the many dictators that have killed in the quest for power, perhaps Ismail Enver Pasha was one of the most unique. He was the leader of the Young Turk Revolution and became more powerful as he led the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the Balkan Wars. But despite his experience on the battlefield, he was still very bad at leading an army as he lost battle after battle. What’s even worse is that he killed over 1.5 million Armenians and over 1 million people of other races just to compensate for his shameful loss in Sarikamish.
As President of Sudan, Omar al-Bashir was the ruler that negotiated the end of the Sudanese Civil War by giving in to what the Sudan People’s Liberation Army was requesting. Although what he did was considered fair and noble, the agreement directly led to wars in Darfur that claimed the lives of about 400,000 people due to violence and starvation.
Being the communist leader of Cambodia, Pol Pot had envisioned a country that would be equal by any means. So he thought of sending city people to the farms and the farm people to the city. As expected, he did not get the results he wanted so he then resorted to punishing people and depriving them of their right to education, medication, and nutrition. He even executed about 2.5 million who were not following his ideals.
General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan was very active during the Second World War and became the third President of Pakistan. As expected, he instituted martial law and ruthlessly led a war against Eastern Pakistan. His policies left millions dead.
Anti-Semitic, idealistic, and very violent, “Bloody Nicholas” as he was sometimes called cost Russia 3 million lives.
When he was assigned to be general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Hideki Tojo was not content with his position so he also assumed the position of Prime Minister, Army Minister, Home Minister, Foreign Minister, Education Minister, and Commerce Minister…talk about a lot of responsibility. He also made ties with the Nazis hoping that he would rise to power alongside Hitler. Due to his relentless acts of attacking other Asian countries, he was directly responsible for the deaths of over 5 million individuals.
Josef Stalin became the leader of Soviet Union after Lenin died in 1924, and launched government programs that would make the country more progressive. His attempt to move to the new economy, however, led to the starvation of nearly 10 million people. With many intellectuals and activists not in favor of his leadership, Stalin also launched the “Great Purge”, killing every person who opposed him and his ideals.
As a colonial leader of Belgium, Leopold II was famous for essentially enslaving and killing nearly 15 million Congolese under the guise of his Congo Free State. Other European powers had granted him the territory in order to improve the lives of its inhabitants. Instead he used them for his own personal gain and committed some of the worst atrocities in history.
To most people Adolf Hitler does not need much of an introduction as he was famous for being the leader of the Nazis – a German party that was responsible for the deaths of over 17 million people including 6 million Jews and after leading the entire world into war as well as committing numerous war crimes he certainly deserves a spot on this list.
Famous for being one of the communist leaders of the Republic of China beginning around World War II, Mao Zedong was a ruler who thirsted for power. In his first five years, he killed about 4 to 6 million by indiscriminately sentencing them to death. His policies also starved about 20 million and on top of that he had numerous enemies of the state executed.