Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party (NAZI) Party
When Austrian-born dictator Adolf Hitler became the leader of the Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazi) from 1934 to 1945, he promoted nationalism, anti-communism, and anti-Semitism as he established a Fascist dictatorship in Germany and adopted a foreign policy of world conquest. His racial suppression led to the death of an estimated 6 million Jews, not including several other groups of people and his political opponents.
Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU)
The major political party of Russia and the Soviet Union, it replaced the Bolsheviks wing of the Russian Democratic Worker’s Party under the reign of Vladimir Lenin from 1898 to 1917. It adopted Stalinism however from 1917 to the 1980s under the reign of Joseph Stalin. Since then, it became the monolithic, monopolistic ruling party that dominated the political, cultural, social and economic lives of millions of Russians. The constitution and all the legal documents that supposedly controlled the government were all controlled by the CPSU. When Mikhail Gorbachev ruled the Comintern from 1985 to 1991, it weakened the political party’s power as he implemented reforms in the country’s economic and political structure, which eventually led to its demise in 1991.
National Fascist Party
The Nationalist Fascist Party was created by Benito Mussolini in October 1922 as a Fascist movement following the ‘March on Rome.’ When he became the 27th Prime Minister of Italy, he destroyed all political oppositions through his secret police and outlawed labor strikes. Mussolini and his followers from the Nationalist Fascist Party merged their power through a succession of laws that converted the nation into a one-party dictatorship. He seized total power as a dictator in 1926 and ruled Italy as its “Il Duce” (“the leader”) from 1930 until his ouster in 1943.
FET y de las JONS
Also known as the ‘National Movement’ or ‘Nacionales,’ this is a single-party authoritarian rule from 1945 that continued on in Spain until Franco’s death in 1975. Under Franco’s regime, 270,000 men and women were held in prisons while some 500,000 fled into exile after the Spanish Civil War. Those who were captured were returned to Spain or interned in Nazi concentration camps. The first years of the dictatorship from 1940-1942 alone saw the death of 200,000 Spaniards from political repression, diseases and hunger.
Communist Party of China (CCP)
Founded in July 1921 after a lengthy civil war between the CPC and the Kuomintang (KMT), the CCP assumed full control in 1949 when Mao Zedong decreed the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, the only global superpower still ruled by a Communist Party, under a one-party socialist state. It maintained a unitary government that centralized the state, military, and media although it should nominally exist alongside the United Front, a coalition of governing political parties. Though its legal power is guaranteed by the national constitution, it stands above the law due to the Party’s Leninist roots. Though the ‘Great Leap Forward’ from 1958 to 1961 saw the modernization and industrialization of the country, it has also resulted to widespread famine.