Also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, the Ottoman state became an empire with the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453. The Ottoman dynasty lasted for 623 years until the monarchy was abolished in 1922 and covered parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. This multinational, multilingual empire’s economic aim was to increase revenues without drastic changes in the lives of the subjects, their commercial activities, and their traditional beliefs.
Alexander the Great’s aim was to reach the “ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea” as the king of Macedon. With that in mind he was able to conquer territories that stretched from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas. This feat made him one of the most successful commanders in history.
Despite the rifts in government affairs going into the second half of the Tang Dynasty, the art and culture of the era remained colorful and flourishing. With a population base of nearly 80 million people the dynasty was able to raise up armies of hundreds of thousands of men to compete with the warring forces of inner Asia.
Golden Horde Khanate
The Kipchak Khanate, also referred to as the Golden Horde, was established in the 13th century in the Mongol empire’s north-western sector. Originally a Mongol and later a Turkish khanate, this “empire” lasted for a relatively short hundred year period until 1395.
Chandragupta Maurya founded this empire in 322 B.C and it is the largest empire ever on the Indian subcontinent. Advancements in trade and commerce, and successful agricultural productivity were evident due to an economic system that was kept in check by the military and government. Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism played an important role in the kingdom’s governance and the kings’ and their subjects’ lives.