25 Influential Pieces Of Ancient Greek Architecture

Posted by , Updated on June 27, 2014

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Ancient Greek architecture is most popular for its temples. This type of architecture was produced by the Hellenic people whose culture thrived on Mainland Greece, the Aegean Islands and in colonies in the Asia Minor between 900 BC and 1st century A.D. Buildings and temples built during this era were characterized by their highly formal structures and decorations. Most of them looked like buildings elevated on the ground such that the proportions and the effects of light on its surfaces could be viewed at all angles. Public buildings and domestic buildings built at the time were best known for their columns and lintels, entablatures and pediments, masonry bases and spanned doors and windows. Here is a list of 25 influential pieces of Ancient Greek Architecture:

25

Temple of Artemis. Corfu, Greece. 580 B.C.

Temple of Artemis. Corfu, Greece. 580 B.C.scodpub.wordpress.com

One of the most ancient edifices in Corfu, Greece, the Temple of Artemis was built and dedicated to Artemis and functioned as a sanctuary. It is known as the first Doric temple that was exclusively built with stone and the first building to have integrated all the elements of the Doric architectural style.

24

Temple of Hera. Olympia, Greece. 590 B.C.

Temple of Hera. Olympia, Greece. 590 B.C.www.gtp.gr

Also known as Heraion, the Temple of Hera is an ancient Doric Greek temple that was destroyed by an earthquake in the early 4th century A.D. and was never rebuilt. Today, the ruined temple is where the torch of the Olympic flames is located and lit. This temple was dedicated to Hera, a female deity in Greek religion.

23

The Temple of Apollo. Corinth, Greece. 540 B.C.

The Temple of Apollo. Corinth, Greece. 540 B.C.www.mesogeia.net

Located in Isthmus of Corinth, the Temple of Apollo was very similar to the Temple of Hera at Olympia, only that it was built entirely on stone. The broad capitals of this temple were carved as separate pieces and were coated with marble stucco.

22

The Temple of Aphaia. Aegina, Greece. 490 B.C.

The Temple of Aphaia. Aegina, Greece. 490 B.C.www.artchive.com

Located within the sanctuary complex dedicated to goddess Aphaia, the Temple of Aphaia lies in the Saronic Gulf and stands on a 160-meter peak on the eastern side of the island. This temple has a peripheral hexa-style plan with 12 columns along each of its sides. It also has a ceramic roof and pedimental sculptures.

21

The Temple of Zeus. Olympia, Greece. 460 B.C.

The Temple of Zeus. Olympia, Greece. 460 B.C.www.eurail.com

Designed by Libon of Elis, the Temple of Zeus at Olympia was an ancient Greek temple dedicated to the chief of the gods; Zeus. It was built between 472 B.C. and 456 B.C. and served as the very model of the fully developed classical Greek temple of the Doric order. It had carved metopes and triglyph friezes, as well as pediments filled with sculptures in the Severe Style.



20

The Temple of Hephaestus. Athens, Greece. 449 B.C. – 444 B.C.

The Temple of Hephaestus. Athens, Greece. 449 B.C. – 444 B.C.famouswonders.com

More commonly known as the Hephaisteion, the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, Greece is a well-preserved Greek Doric peripteral temple. It is specifically situated at the northwest side of the Agora of Athens on top of the Agoraios Kolonos Hill and has served as the Greek orthodox church of St. George Akamates since 1834.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Hephaestos

19

The Temple of Apollo Epicurius. Bassae, Greece. 450 B.C. to 425 B.C.

The Temple of Apollo Epicurius. Bassae, Greece. 450 B.C. to 425 B.C.gohistoric.com

Designed by the architect of the Temple of Hephaestus and the Parthenon, Iktinos, the Temple of Apollo Epicurius was dedicated to Apollo the Helper. It was praised by ancient writer Pausanias because of the beauty of its stone and the harmony of its construction.

18

The Parthenon. Athens, Greece. 447 B.C. – 432 B.C.

The Parthenon. Athens, Greece. 447 B.C. – 432 B.C.www3.nd.edu

Considered as the most renowned of all Greek temples, the Parthenon is one of the most influential buildings in the world of architecture. It was dedicated to Pericles by Ictinus and Callicrates and was ornamented with sculpture under the direction of Pheidias. The hypostyle naos of this temple contained a colossal statue of Athena.

17

The Temple of Poseidon. Sounion, Greece. 444 B.C. – 440 B.C.

The Temple of Poseidon. Sounion, Greece. 444 B.C. – 440 B.C.www.ancient.eu.com

The Temple of Poseidon is a Doric peripteral hexastyle building that is characterized by its attenuated columns and perfected classical proportion. This temple used to be a venue where mariners propitiated Poseidon by making animal sacrifices or leaving gifts.

16

The Temple of Nemesis. Rhamnous, Greece. 436 B.C. – 432 B.C.

The Temple of Nemesis. Rhamnous, Greece. 436 B.C. – 432 B.C.www.gtp.gr

Located at the road between Rhamnous and Marathon, the Temple of Nemesis used to be a sanctuary where dedications were made to the deified Livia, the wife of Augustis. This Doric hexastyle temple had 12 columns on the sides and contains several grave monuments.

15

The Temple of Athena Nike. Athens, Greece. 427 B.C.

The Temple of Athena Nike. Athens, Greece. 427 B.C.www.fotopedia.com

A temple on the Acropolis of Athens, the Temple of Athena Nike was built between 427 B.C. and 424 B.C. and is considered as the earliest fully Ionic temple in the region. The sheer walls of this temple are protected on the north, west and south by the Nike Parapet. It was designed by Architect Kallikrates.

14

The Erechtheion. Athens, Greece. 421 B.C. – 405 B.C.

The Erechtheion. Athens, Greece. 421 B.C. – 405 B.C.www.historvius.com

Located on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece, The Erechtheion was built for both Athena and Poseidon. This ancient Greek temple was designed by Mnesicles, with name derived from a shrine dedicated to the legendary Greek hero Erichthonius. It is believed that this temple was built to replace the Peisistratid temple of Athena Polias that was destroyed in 480 B.C.

13

The Tholos of Athena. Delphi, Greece. 400 B.C.

The Tholos of Athena. Delphi, Greece. 400 B.C.www.studyblue.com

The Tholos of Athena is a circular temple constructed by Theodorus of Phocaea. It serves as an early example of a Doric exterior with a Corinthian interior, each having 20 and 10 columns, respectively. It established the pattern for circular temples in ancient Greece.

12

The Temple of Asclepius. Epidauros, Greece. 380 B.C.

The Temple of Asclepius. Epidauros, Greece. 380 B.C.undergrn.deviantart.com

Built in the early fourth century BCE, the Temple of Asclepius was built to serve as a major temple for the healing god Asclepius. Designed by Theodotos, this Doric temple features pedimental sculpture, front and back, and figural acroteria. Fragments of its upper structure were recovered in an excavation and are now exhibited in an archaeological museum at the site.

11

The Tholos of Polykleitos. Epidauros, Greece. 350 B.C.

The Tholos of Polykleitos. Epidauros, Greece. 350 B.C.www.artchive.com

Built in 350 B.C., the Tholos of Polykleitos is a circular temple or treasury located in Epidauros, Greece. This temple is surrounded by 26 columns of the Doric Order and has a total of 14 Corinthian columns in its interior.

10

The Philippeion. Olympia, Greece. 339 B.C.

The Philippeion. Olympia, Greece. 339 B.C.www.coastal.edu

An Ionic circular memorial of ivory and gold, the Philippeion in the Altis of Olympia contained statues of Philip’s family, as well as those of Alexander the Great, Olympias, Amyntas III and Eurydice I. Made by Athenian sculptor Leochares, it was the only structure inside the region that was actually dedicated to a human.

9

The Delian Temple of Apollo. Delos, Greece. 470 B.C.- 300 B.C.

The Delian Temple of Apollo. Delos, Greece. 470 B.C.- 300 B.C.www.chrisputro.com

Dedicated to Apollo, the Delian Temple of Apollo is considered as a classic example of the Doric order. This Doric peripteral hexastyle temple has 13 columns on its sides. It also has other temple buildings inside its main sanctuary. Today, the entire site of this temple is in a ruinous state and little of the original temple remains.

8

The Temple of Apollo. Siracusa, Sicily. 565 B.C.

The Temple of Apollo. Siracusa, Sicily. 565 B.C.www.flickriver.com

The Temple of Apollo is a Doric peripteral hexastyle temple that has 17 columns down each of its two sides. It also has an additional row of columns at its eastern end. One of the distinguishing characteristics of this temple in terms of design is that the columns at its sides are very close together.

7

The Temple of the Olympian Zeus. Athens, Greece. 174 B.C. to 132 A.D.

The Temple of the Olympian Zeus. Athens, Greece. 174 B.C. to 132 A.D.www.athensminibus.com

A major tourist attraction in Athens, Greece, the Temple of the Olympian Zeus is a colossal ruined temple located at the center of Athens. Also known as the Olympieion, this temple was built for Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods. Athenian tyrants envisioned this temple as the greatest temple in the ancient world.

6

Selinunte Temple. Selinunte, Sicily. 550 B.C.

Selinunte Temple. Selinunte, Sicily. 550 B.C.www.hitsicily.com

The Selinunte Temple is one of the Doric temples in the Acropolis at Selinunte. It is almost similar to the Temple of Apollo at Syracuse with its 17 columns at the sides and additional row of columns at the eastern end. This temple is accessible from the naos, and its aisles are wide.

5

The Temple of Hera I. Paestum, Italy. 530 B.C.

The Temple of Hera I. Paestum, Italy. 530 B.C.www.trekearth.com

More commonly known as the “Basilica,” the Temple of Hera I is one of the earliest Doric temples that have survived since the ancient times. It is an unusual building with 9 columns across its front and 18 on each side. It is very distinguishable because its columns have marked entasis or cigar-shaped and flattened bulging capitals.

4

The Temple of Athena. Paestum, Italy. 510 B.C.

The Temple of Athena. Paestum, Italy. 510 B.C.tripwow.tripadvisor.com

More commonly known as the Temple of Demeter, the Temple of Athena is a Doric peripteral hexastyle temple that has proportions established as the Doric ideal. It is quite similar as the Temple of Poseidon at Sunion, only that it has more pronounced entasis and its capitals are larger and wider. It also features a lot of Ionic features.

3

The Temple of Hera Lacinia. Agrigento, Sicily. 460 B.C.

The Temple of Hera Lacinia. Agrigento, Sicily. 460 B.C.www.flickriver.com

Constructed on a mostly artificial spur, the Temple of Hera Lacinia is a Doric temple with basement having four steps. Its current remains consist of the front colonnade with parts of its architrave and of the frieze. The original temple was damaged by fire in 406 B.C. but was restored during Roman times.

2

The Temple of Concord. Agrigento, Sicily. 430 B.C.

The Temple of Concord. Agrigento, Sicily. 430 B.C.www.trekearth.com

Ranked among the most notable edifices of the Greek civilization, the Temple of Concord features an exterior and interior covered with polychrome stucco. Its upper frame has gutters with lion-like protomes, while its roof is covered with marble tiles. This temple was turned into a church during the ancient times but was eventually destroyed.

1

The Temple of Segesta. Segesta, Sicily. 424 B.C.

The Temple of Segesta. Segesta, Sicily. 424 B.C.wanderingtrader.com

This Doric temple was built in the late 5th century and is one of the most preserved temples in ancient Greece. It lacks a cella and does not have a roof over it. It is also unusual for being a Hellenic temple because it is located in a city that is not mostly populated by Greeks.

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